Lectura ilustrada Comedia. Paraíso, XIV-XVIII

Ilustración de Salvador Dalí, 1964

Actividades 

A) En la imagen de arriba, Dalí juega con la disposición estratégica de varios elementos pictóricos para sugerir el rostro de Cacciaguida, personaje que tiene gran protagonismo en los cantos que hemos leídos esta semana. Di si son verdaderas o falsas las siguientes afirmaciones basadas en este personaje y en la larga conversación que mantiene con Dante: 1. Cacciaguida es el bisabuelo de Dante. 2. El encuentro con él tiene lugar en el quinto cielo, el de Marte. 3. Las primeras palabras que le dirige a Dante son: "O sanguis meus, o superinfusa gratia Dei, sicut tibi cui bis unquam celi ianua reclusa?" 4. En su elogio de la Florencia del pasado, Cacciaguida dice, entre otras cosas: "No había gargantillas, ni coronas, ni faldas recamadas, ni pretinas que resaltasen más que las personas". 5. Y sobre las mujeres florentinas: "¡Qué afortunadas eran! Conocían el lugar de su muerte, y sus maridos no iban a la guerra y las dejaban solas". 6. Cacciaguida nació en Florencia en 1091, y tuvo dos hermanos: Moronto y Meliseo. 7. "Desde el valle del Po vino mi esposa" -le dice a Dante-, "y de su rama viene tu apellido". 8. Fue armado caballero por el emperador Conrado III, a quien siguió en la Segunda Cruzada a Palestina, donde murió. 9. Dante usa el vos para dirigirse a él (de lo cual se ríe Beatriz): "Vos sois mi ancestro; vos me infundís arrojo para hablar; vos me eleváis, y yo soy más que yo. Son tantos los caudales de alegría que llegan a mi mente, que se ufana de poder contenerlos sin romperse". 10. Al oír los halagos de Dante, la luz que desprende el espíritu se intensifica, al igual que "un tizón se aviva con un soplo de viento". 11. Para Cacciaguida, "la confusión de las personas fue el principio del mal de la ciudad, como el mucho comer daña a los hombres; y un toro ciego siempre cae primero que el ternero sin vista, y una espada suele cortar mejor que siete juntas". 12. Dante confiesa al espíritu que, mientras subía por el monte de las almas y descendía al mundo de los muertos, acompañado de Virgilio, ha oído cosas muy dolorosas de su vida futura, y añade: "Me gustaría, pues, saber ahora qué es lo que la fortuna me depara, que la flecha esperada daña menos". 13. "Igual que partió Hipólito de Tebas a causa de su pérfida madrastra, te conviene partir de tu Florencia", le advierte el espíritu familiar. 14. El exilio de Dante se está preparando "allá donde con Cristo se comercia", es decir, en la curia papal, y pronto se hará efectivo. 15. Cacciaguida le profetiza que tendrá que abandonar lo que más ama, conocer lo amargo que es el pan ajeno, y cuán duro y penoso es el camino que sube y baja ajenas escaleras, pero lo peor de todo no será eso, sino el lastre de sus ruines compañeros, que se volverán en su contra. 16. "Será hermoso que tú tomes partido por ti mismo", le aconseja. 17. Su primer destino como exiliado será Verona, donde le dará cobijo el gran Lombardo que en su enseña luce el león dorado sobre la escala. 18. Allí conocerá a Giambattista della Scalla, aún un niño, que de adulto dará muestras de virtud y magnificencia, y se convertirá en su gran protector durante su segundo retiro veronés. 19. Cacciaguida emplea un neologismo ("tu vida se enfutura") para dar ánimos y esperanzas a Dante. 20. Otro de los consejos que da Cacciaguida a Dante es que diga la verdad pese a quien le pese, y lo hace con estas palabras: "Sólo una conciencia manchada por vergüenza ajena o propia percibirá aspereza en tus palabras. Con todo, rechazando la mentira, declara tu visión abiertamente; y deja que se rasquen los sarnosos. Que si tu voz en el primer bocado resulta amarga, al fin dará provecho y alimento después de digerida. Tu grito golpeará, como hace el viento, con más fuerza las cúspides más altas, y esto es causa de honor, y no pequeña". 

B) En este enlace (solo para participantes inscritos) puedes ver varias ilustraciones relativas a los cinco cantos leídos esta semana. Tómalas como referencia para contestar a las siguientes cuestiones: 1. Busca y cita un pie descriptivo adecuado para las imágenes nº 1, 2, 3, 4 y 5. 2. ¿En qué cielo tiene lugar la escena de la imagen nº 1 y qué tipo de espíritus hay en él? 3. ¿Y el de la escena de la imagen nº 3? 4. Para la imagen nº 6, que plasma una escena del canto XVIII, un pie descriptivo adecuado podría ser: "Como las aves que remontan vuelo en los ríos después de alimentarse y dibujan estelas diferentes, así en las luces revoloteaban y cantaban las santas criaturas, formando ora una D, una I, una L". Di qué gazapo se ha deslizado en el mismo. 5. Con respecto a la misma imagen, la nº 6, di qué frase en latín van a dibujar en su vuelo, letra a letra, las almas que vemos y qué significado tiene? 6. Di cuáles de las siguientes almas no están entre las que recorren, en forma de luz, el interior de la cruz de la imagen nº 7: Orlando, Guiscardo, Hugo de PaynsJosué, Macabeo, Domiciano, Pietro Bernardone, Rinoardo, Tancredo de Hauteville, Godofredo de  Bouillón, Matatías, Carlomagno y  Guillermo de Orange. 7. "Poco después mis ojos recobraron la visión y me vi ya transportado hacia un cielo más alto con mi dama". Este podría ser un pie adecuado para la imagen nº 8, que plasma la escena del canto XIV en la que Dante y Beatriz ascienden al cielo de Marte. En dicha escena, Dante advierte la mayor excelsitud de este cielo por el ígneo fulgor de aquella estrella, que es, tal como refleja la imagen de Moebius, de un intenso color amarillo: ¿Verdadero o Falso? 

C) Contesta: 1. Al final de XV, Cacciaguida hace una alusión a su participación en las cruzadas. Cita dichas palabras, e investiga y explica brevemente qué eran las cruzadas y qué objetivo tuvieron. 2. En XVI, 1-9, Dante censura una vez más la vanagloria humana: "¡Oh, precaria nobleza de la sangre, si haces que de ti se vanaglorie la gente aquí...". Completa este pasaje. 3. Los últimos cuatro versos de XVIII sirven a Dante para recrear una imaginada respuesta sarcástica del papa a un nuevo tirón de orejas a la Iglesia. Cítalos y explica brevemente qué significan.  

Envía tus respuestas a elinfiernodebarbusse@gmail.com a lo largo de esta semana. Si por algún motivo no has podido leer durante esta semana, no hay problema por enviar varias actividades conjuntamente, siempre que esta excepción no se convierta en un hábito general.

Pregunta compartida

Elige la respuesta correcta a la pregunta que se formula debajo de esta entrada, en la zona de comentarios. Utiliza el botón "Responder" para que tu respuesta aparezca debajo del enunciado de la pregunta.
________________________________

Ficha (para los más curiosos): Orden histórico-político

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  1. Respecto al nombre del pariente de Dante, Cacciaguida, este es su:

    A) Nombre de pila
    B) Apellido
    C) Apodo
    D) Sobrenombre de cruzado

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  2. La A), como dice en 133-134: "en vuestro muy antiguo baptisterio, a la par fui cristiano y Cacciaguida"

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  3. A) Nombre de pila

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  4. Mari Carmen Martín14 de mayo de 2019, 13:55

    Nombre de pila: A

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  5. A. nombre impuesto en la pila bautismal.

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